The words that are used to introduce all living and non-living beings and concepts are called nouns. Examples: rose, water, house, Istanbul, Amy, the Atlantic Ocean, running, etc. Nouns are divided into classes in various ways.
Proper Noun: Names given to entities that are unique in the world and that are not identical among other entities. Examples: Asia, Mercury, Brasil, Clara, Tom, World Health Organisation, etc.
Common Noun: Common names of beings of the same genus, same species. For example, objects useful for writing, even if their shapes, colors, and sizes are different, are called pens. Examples: pencil, tree, person, house, child, love, sadness, fear, excitement, etc.
Concrete Noun: Some words refer to entities that can be perceived by “any of our five senses (sight, touch, hearing, smell, taste)”. Such words are called concrete words. Examples: pen, tree, heat, air, boy, water, soil, green, etc.
Abstract Noun: Some of the words correspond to entities that we cannot perceive with “any of our five senses”. Such words are called abstract words. We can perceive their existence with our minds and feelings. Examples: love, joy, sadness, courage, beauty, peace, fear, goodness, doubt, etc.
Singular Noun: Nouns that meet a single entity or concept. Examples: child, tree, house, flower, country, human, etc.
Plural Noun: We make singular nouns plural by adding -s, -es, or -ies suffixes. Examples: children, trees, houses, flowers, etc. Some nouns have irregular plural forms.
Collective Noun: These are the names that seem singular in terms of structure but express more than one concept in meaning. Examples: army, herd, forest, class, nation, etc.
Count Noun: Count noun refers to things that can be counted. They have both singular and plural forms. Examples: hat, table, glass, book, umbrella, etc.
Mass Noun: This refers to things that cannot be counted. They have only one form. Examples: knowledge, happiness, cheese, juice, oxygen, etc.