By constantly using mathematical concepts in their daily lives, children gain mathematical experiences that have an important place in life. Before using numbers formally, they gain awareness of numbers through experiences in their daily lives. For example, children become aware of the sequence of events before they talk about what the first, second, or third means. When they lift objects up, they may experience that they are heavy or light. Therefore, children can tell the difference in the size of people, animals, and toys without having any idea about the measurement.
Although children have a natural ability to use mathematics, studies have shown that the differences in problem-solving, quantity, counting principle, and number knowledge in children with low mathematics achievement appear when they start school. If these differences are not eliminated in early childhood, they may be permanent and difficult to correct. In this context, systematic and needs-sensitive programs are necessary to increase mathematics achievement in early childhood. There is a need for programs that are compatible with the philosophy of mathematics and include mathematical thinking, knowledge, and basic skills. These programs will not only eliminate the negative thoughts that may arise at an early age but also contribute to the formation of an exciting, creative, entertaining, and curious perception about mathematics in children, not fear or anxiety.
Problem-solving is the key to understanding all other areas of mathematics. Reasoning and proofing involve making and examining mathematical conjectures, developing and evaluating mathematical arguments and proofs. Relationships make mathematics easier to understand by children. Because relationships show that certain rules apply to many different things. It gives the opportunity to apply other fields to mathematics. Notation is used to organize and record mathematical ideas, convert mathematical representations to each other, and model mathematical events.