Skeletal System

Skeletal System

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The structure that gives shape to our body, enables it to stand upright and provides support is called the skeleton. The skeleton is located under the skin and muscles.

The skeleton consists of four basic parts:

1. Skull

2. Spine

3. Rib cage

4. Arms and legs

The skull is the structure in which our brain is located and that protects our brain from external factors. 

The spine starts from our neck and runs along our back. The spine is an important part of the skeleton that allows our body to stand upright. It is formed by the overlapping of short bones. The spine, which looks like the letter “S”, protects the structure inside. The spinal bones in the neck provide support to our head and allow us to keep it upright.

The ribs and sternum (the breastbone) make up the rib cage. It protects the lungs and heart. It helps us breathe.

We do most of our movements with our arms and legs, which are the 4th basic parts of our skeleton. While walking, our upper and lower leg bones provide support to our bodies.

There are about 206 bones in our skeleton. When these bones are connected to each other, our skeleton is formed. A newborn baby has 300 bones in his skeleton. As babies grow and develop, their bones harden and fuse.

The number of hand and foot bones is more than half of the bones in our body. The smallest bone in our body is the stapes which is located in our ear. Its length is 3 mm. The largest and strongest bone in our body is the femur (the thigh bone) which is around 50 cm. 

The tissue that fills the inner cavities of bones is called marrow. Marrow enables the production of blood cells.

Types of bones in our body

Long bones: The bones in the arms and legs. Bones that are longer than they are wide.

Short bones: the Bones found in the wrists, ankles, and spine. 

Flat bones: The bones in the skull and rib cage.

Functions of the Skeleton

1. It gives our body its general shape.

2. It makes us move.

3. It provides support to our body and allows our body to stand upright.

4. It protects our internal organs.

Joints 

Our skeletal system is composed of bones and joints. The structures that connect the bones to each other are called joints. They are the connection points of the bones that facilitate our movement.Every time we bend our legs or clench our fists, our joints work.

Our joints are located where bones meet. Without them, our body would not be able to move, it would stand upright.

Types of Joints 

1. Immovable Joints: These joints are found where bones are fixed and firmly attached, as in the skull.

2. Slightly Movable Joints: Joints that can move very little, as in the spine, provide limited movement of the bones.

3. Freely Movable Joints: Movable joints are highly flexible and found in large proportions in the body.

How to keep our bones healthy? 

We should consume foods containing calcium and phosphorus. Examples of these foods: milk and milk products, soy, green leafy vegetables, eggs and dried fruits

We need vitamin D for strong bones. We can take vitamin D from the sun. So, we should regularly spend time in sunlight

We should sustain an active life. 

We should not make wrong moves while walking and running.

We should sit upright while reading, studying or writing.

Instead of bending our backs, we should bend our knees as we bend down.

You can find the answer key HERE

Download the worksheet for free at HERE

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