The affix is added to the root of a word and causes a change in the meaning of that word. If an affix is added before a word, it is called a prefix and if it is added to the end, it is called a suffix. Suffixes can sometimes be separated by a hyphen.
Examples of affixes are given below:
- Inaccurate ⇒ in- is the prefix here.
- Walking ⇒ ing- is the suffix here
- Disobey ⇒ dis- is the prefix here.
- Clearly ⇒ ly- is the suffix here
The prefixes ‘dis-, in-, re-‘, and ‘un-‘ are the most commonly used prefixes.
The suffixes ‘-es, -ed, -ly’, and ‘-ing’ are the most commonly used suffixes.
∗ The prefixes that come before an adjective and give that adjective a negative meaning are as follows:
- un- ⇒ uncomfortable
- im-/in-/ir-/il- ⇒ impossible, independent, irresponsible, illegal
- non- ⇒ non-fat
- dis- ⇒ disorganized
∗ The suffixes that form a noun when added to a noun, verb or adjective are as follows:
- -tion/-sion ⇒ information, suspension
- -er ⇒ consumer
- -ment ⇒ employment
- -al ⇒ denial
- -ence/ance ⇒ importance
- -ity ⇒ sanity
- –ness ⇒ selfishness
- -cy ⇒ infancy
- -ship ⇒ friendship
∗ The suffixes that form an adjective by being added to a noun or verb, and derive an adjective from a noun or verb are as follows:
- -al ⇒ political
- -ent ⇒ convenient
- -ive ⇒ informative
- -ous ⇒ delicious
- -ful ⇒ beautiful
- -less ⇒ careless
- -able ⇒ comfortable