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The Solar System is a group of celestial bodies with planets, comets, and satellites revolving around the Sun. The most important feature of the sun is, undoubtedly, that it creates a source of heat and light. It illuminates our world and also allows it to warm. In addition, the planets revolve around the Sun, thanks to its strong pull. Thus, the solar system is formed.
Features of the Sun
The Sun, which has lived for billions of years and is older than all the planets, is the most important source of our system and has many different properties.
∗ The sun is a star.
∗ The sun is the closest star to the Earth.
∗ The Sun is 4.6 billion years old. It will also go extinct after 5 billion years.
∗ The sun is the heat and light source of our world.
∗ It is one of a total of 200 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy.
∗ The distance between the Earth and the Sun is approximately 150 million kilometers.
∗ The sun’s light reaches the Earth in about 8 minutes.
∗ The sun appears very small because it is so far from our earth.
∗ The diameter of the sun is 110 times the diameter of the earth.
There are many planets in our solar system. Let’s examine these planets from the closest to the sun and look at their properties.
Mercury: Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. It is also the smallest planet in the solar system. It is covered with beautiful craters and does not have any satellites. Earth is 3 times larger than Mercury. Its temperature ranges from -170 degrees Celsius to + 350 degrees Celsius.
Venus: The direction of rotation of Venus continues from east to west relative to other planets. It has a very serious greenhouse effect, especially due to the intense carbon dioxide in its atmosphere, and it is a very hot planet. It has the same size as the Earth and is also called the Earth’s twin. It has no satellites.
Earth: Earth is the only planet known to have life. It has only one satellite and that is the moon. It has no rings. 75% of its surface is covered with water and is known as the blue planet. Its surface temperature averages 15 degrees Celsius and it is the 5th largest planet in the Solar system.
Mars: Mars is known as the red planet. It has no rings but it has two satellites. The surface temperature ranges from – 140 degrees to + 20 degrees. Earth is twice the size of Mars. Also, since there is water on the surface of Mars, it is discussed that there is a possibility of life on Mars.
Jupiter: Jupiter stands out as the largest planet in the solar system. It is also known as the giant planet. It has more than 60 satellites. It has large red spots. Jupiter is 11 times the size of Earth. The surface temperature is – 110 degrees Celsius. It also has rings.
Saturn: Saturn has more than 60 satellites and 7 rings. It is the largest planet after Jupiter and its largest satellite is Titan. Also, Saturn is 10 times larger than Earth.
Uranus: It has 27 satellites and a thin ring around it. It is 4 times larger than the Earth, and its surface is -197 degrees Celsius.
Neptune: Neptune has 6 thin rings and 13 satellites. It has a dark blue color and is the farthest planet from the Sun. In addition, its atmosphere is very poisonous and it is 4 times larger than the earth.
Pluto: Pluto has been described as a planet since it was discovered. The planet Pluto has been deprecated as a planet because it is smaller than its satellite and even the Moon, and because of the continuing exploration of different bodies outside the Solar System. In 2006, the “International Astronomical Union” announced the conditions for being a planet and according to these rules, Pluto was accepted as a dwarf planet.
Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are terrestrial planets which means they have a rocky surface. On the other hand, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are gas giants which means they are mostly gaseous with very little rock and ice.
Planets called gas giants have thick atmospheres of hydrogen, helium, ammonia, and methane. However, due to the increasing temperature and pressure towards the inner parts of the planets, these substances that make up the atmosphere begin to turn into liquid. So gas giants do not have a solid surface.
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